The fabrication of ultrafine structures beyond the limits of conventional lithography is a topic of tremendous importance and is expected to play a significant role in the realization of futuristic nanotechnology. It is also equally important to develop functional material systems of ultrafine dimensions in order to achieve this goal. An important step towards realization of nanodevices is self-organized nanopatterning of functional structures. A new technique, which might be called chemical lithography, enables the regular assembly of optically active nanoparticles on a silicon surface.
The just released 2007 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) budget request is $1.28 billion, slightly less than the 2006 estimated spend of $1.30 billion. The 2007 numbers would bring the overall NNI investment since its inception in 2001 to $6.6 billion. The lion share of this amount, $2 billion or 30.3%, went to the Department of Defense (DoD). In 2006, the DoD's share even reached 33.5% of the entire NNI budget.
Nanoribbons, which are attracting much attention due to their well-defined geometry and perfect crystallinity, require complex and expensive equipment to faricate. Researchers in China have succeeded in fabricating a single nanoribbon sensor and demonstrated its use as a potential in situ monitor to track blood glucose levels, suitable for potential use by diabetics.
Researchers combined two different materials from nature, both of which have unique and important properties, into one material system via genetic engineering. By combining the features of silk with biosilica through the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel family of chimeric proteins an innovative biomimetic nanocomposite was fabricated.
One major challenge in much of nanotechnology is how to connect nanocomponents together. Despite significant advancements in nanowire growth techniques, establishment of electrical contacts to nanowire assemblies through non-destructive methods has not yet been successfully realized. Researchers now report a novel approach toward connecting and electrically contacting vertically aligned nanowire arrays using conductive nanoparticles.
A new toxicological study of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped with nitrogen found clear differences in the toxicological aspects and biocompatibility compared to multiwalled or singlewalled CNTs, indicating that they might be more advantageous for bioapplications.
The concept of e-noses - electronic devices which mimic the olfactory systems of mammals and insects - is well developed and has become a booming area of research thanks to a better understanding of the reception, signal transduction and odor recognition mechanisms for mammals, combined with achievements in material science, microelectronics and computer science. Researchers have now started replacing the sensing elements in e-noses with nanowires, achieving excellent sensing performance which is comparable or even better compared to the best thin film counterparts.
Researchers at the University of Sydney have revealed a new structural evolution of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy composites during contact sliding and have shown that the evolution has three stages which are a) the bonding breakage of the CNTs, b) the formation of sinusoidal shells, and c) the consolidation of nanoparticles. This may present a potentially effective way to obtain nanoparticles with controlled structure and size.